Diabetes is a chronic health condition that occurs when blood sugar levels are too high. Blood sugar (glucose) is a vital source of energy, but too much sugar in the blood for a long time can damage many parts of the body including the heart, kidneys, and blood vessels. As a result, diabetes can also affect the small blood vessels in the eye; the longer that a person has diabetes or the poorer the diabetes is controlled, the higher the chance of seeing changes in the eyes.
There may or may not be any symptoms, but symptoms may include blurry vision, fluctuating vision, sudden changes in vision, flashes of light, or spots floating in the vision. Other eye-related complications due to diabetes can include bleeding and swelling in the eye, formation of abnormal blood vessels, glaucoma, macular edema, and faster progression of cataracts.
Although there isn't a cure for diabetes, taking recommended medications, keeping health care appointments, and living a healthy lifestyle can reduce the impact of diabetes on your life. Most vision loss due to diabetes can be prevented if detected and treated at an early stage. Treatment options vary depending on the problem, but some possible treatment for diabetes-related eye disease includes medications, laser treatment, and sometimes surgery to preserve or restore vision.